English Literature


abay see bay
ac conj. but, and
adighten, adyghtyn v. adorn
adight, adyth p. adorned
advoutri(e) see avouteri(e)
after prep. according to
agayn see ayen
al conj. even if, although
alday adv. always, all the time
algate(s) adv. entirely, continually,
Alkaron n. Koran
almes(se) n. pl. alms (almes-dede,
good deed)
als, also adv. as, also, as well
and conj. and, if
anon(e) adv. at once, immediately
apeire, apaire v. make worse,
impair, debase, deteriorate
assoile v. absolve
atones adv. at once
atte prep. at the
avouteri(e), advoutri(e) n. adultery
avoutrer, advoutrer n. adulterer
ay adv. always
ayen, agayn adv., prep. again, back,
in reply, against
ayenward, agenward adv.
conversely, on the other hand,
back, back again
baar, bar v. bore, carried
bay, abay n. surrounding or
cornering an animal (at abay,
unable to escape)
be prep. by
been, ben v. be, been
behight p. promised
benedicite(e) interj. bless you
(an oath)
bet adj., adv. better
biforn adv., prep., conj. in front of,
before, superior to, prior
biheste n., v. promise
bilyve, blyve adv. quickly
binime v. take away, deprive, take
blithe v. happy, eager
bo num. both
bobbiden p. struck with fists,
borde see bourde
bot conj. but
bourde, borde n., v. game, story,
brenne v. burn
but if conj. unless, if . . . not
can see con
carp v. talk
catel, cautel n. property, wealth,
certes adv. certainly, indeed
chees(e), chese v., p. choose, chose
cherl n. churl, low-class person,
clepe v. call
clerc n. learned man, scholar,
student, priest
cokewold n. cuckold
componed, compouned p. mixed
con, conne, cunne v. can, know,
know how to, understand, have
the ability to
conseil n. counsel, secret
corage n. spirit, heart
crips adj. curly
dan, daun n. sir, master, lord
dangerous, daungerous adj.
overbearing, disdainful, haughty,
defend v. defend, protect, forbid,
degre(e) n. social status
deme v. judge
digne adj. worthy, honorable
disese n. discomfort, distress, disease
disport n. pastime, recreation
dom, doom n. judgment
Dom, Doom n. Judgment,
doute n. doubt (out of doute,
doubtless, without doubt)
drede n. doubt
dredeful adj. frightening, fearful
dronklew adj., n. drunk
dure(n) v. continue, remain, extend
ech, echon pron., adj. each, each
eek, eke adv., conj. also
eer, her n. hair
eft(e) adv. again
eien, eighen, iyen n. pl. eyes
elde n. age
elles adv. otherwise, else
endite v. compose
enjoye, enjoin v. enjoin
ensamples n. pl. examples,
illustrative narratives
ensocied, ensosyyd ppl. associated
or united (in authority)
erst, erest adv. first
everich pron. every, each
everichon, overychon pron. each
one, every one
everydeel adv. entirely, throughout
eye, iye, ye n. eye
eyen, yen n. pl. eyes
fain adv. gladly
faitour n. deceiver, false beggar
fay, fey n. faith (by my fey, truly)
fele n., adj. many
fil(l) p. fell
folde n. earth
fonge v. seize, take, receive
forthy adv. therefore
forwhy adv., conj. because,
wherefore, therefore
fredom n. not in servitude, noble,
act of generosity
free adj. free, noble, generous
freke n. man, person
fro prep. from
ful adv. very
fyn, fyne n. end, conclusion
gan p. began
geere, gere n. equipment, utensils
gentil adj. of noble birth,
courteous, polite, handsome
gin(ne), gryn(ne) n. trap, scheme
gome n. man
gossib, gossip n. close friend,
confidant, sponsor at baptism
gost n. spirit, soul
gret, greet, grete n., adj., adv.
great (gretter, gretteste)
grote n. groat
gryn(ne) see gin(ne)
han v. have
harrow interj. help! alas!
hat v. has
hathel n. man, knight, nobleman
hatte, heet, height, hight(e) v., p.,
ppl. call, called, named
heed see hefd
heeng, heng v. hung, hanged
hefd, hed, heed, heved n. head
heigh adj. high
height see hatte
hem pron. them
hende adj. courteous, goodlooking,
hente v. seize, take
her see eer
her(e), hir(e) pron., adj. their,
hest(e), heeste n. command,
commandment, promise
her(e) see hir(e)
herberwed, (y-)harberwide v.
heved see hefd
hyghte v., p. wishes, looks forward
to; promised; was called
hir(e), her(e), hur pron, adj. their,
hit pron. it
ho pron. he, she, it, they, who
hom pron. them
homely adj., adv. simple, familiarly
hote(n), hoteth v. command,
promise, call, name
hur see hir(e)
ilk(e) pron., adj. same, each, every,
(i-)now, ynogh, innoughe n.,
adj., adv. enough, abundant,
very much
incontynent adv. immediately
inwit(t) n. mind, reason, spirit,
will, conscience
iwysse, ywis adv. indeed
iye see eye
iyen see eien
joyne v. join, enjoin
kan see con
keep, kep n. heed (take keep, pay
ken(ne) see con
kinde, kende n. nature
knave n. young man, servant,
commoner, rogue
kon see con
koude v. knew how to, could
kouth(e), kowthe v., adj. know,
well known, famous
kunne see con
kyndeliche adj., adv. natural,
naturally, innately
lache v. catch, seize, take, get
lasse adv. less
leere, lere v. learn
leesith see lese
leeve, lef, leve v. cease
leeve, leve adj. dear
leeveful, leeful adj. permitted, legal
lel(e) adj. loyal, true, faithful
lemman n. sweetheart, lover, mistress
lenger adv. longer
lese n. falsehood
lese v. lose
lesing(e) ger. lie
lest see list
let, lett(e) v. delay, hinder,
prevent, stop
leve, leeve adj. dear, beloved
lever(e), levir adv. rather
lewed, lewid adj. uneducated,
ignorant, stupid
lewte n. honesty, loyalty,
adherence to law, justice
liflod(e) n. livelihood
liketh v. pleases (him liketh, it
pleases him)
list, lest, lust n. desire, pleasure,
list(e), lest(e) v. wishes, desires,
lite adj. little
long(e) v. belong, (hit longeth, it
is fitting)
lordynges n. gentlemen, sirs
lorel n. rogue, beggar, fool
losel n. rogue, wastrel
lust see list
lyghtly adv. effortlessly
Machamete, Machomete,
Macomet n. Muhammad
make n. mate
maugre prep. in spite of,
maumetri(e) n. idolatry
mede n. gift, reward
medeful adj. meritorious
mengid, mingid p. mixed, joined
menging ger. mixing, mixture
meschief n. misfortune, trouble,
harm, plight
mete n. food, meal
mete v. dream
mikel see muchel
mingid see mengid
mo n., adj., adv. more
mochel see muchel
moot, moote, mooten v. must,
morwe n. morning, morrow
moste, mot v. must
mowe v. may
muchel, mochel, mikel n., adj.,
adv. much, greatly
namely adv. especially, particularly,
that is
namo n., adj., adv. no more, no
nat, ne, noght, nought adv. not
neer adv. nearer
neissche, nessche adj., adv. soft,
nice, nyse adj. foolish
noght adv. not
nolde p. would not, did not wish
non, none n. noon
nones, nonys n. occasion (for the
nones, for the moment, indeed)
noon pron. no one, none
noot v. know not
nought adv. not
ny, nygh(e) adj. near
nys v. is not
o, on, oo pron. one
of adv. off
ones, onis adv. once
or prep., adv., conj. before
other, or conj., adv. before
other, outher conj. or
(other . . . other, either . . . or)
other(e), oother, othir, othre
pron., adj. other
overal adv. everywhere, especially
overychon see everichon
owe(n) adv. ought
parde(e) interj. indeed, in truth
pay n. satisfaction, liking, pleasure
pay v. please
plain see pleyn(e)
pleyn adj., adv. full, clear, fully,
pleyn(e), playne v. complain
pleyntis n. pl. complaints
preve v. test, prove, discover,
prevy, privee adj. secret, private,
queynte adj. wise, crafty, intricate,
fashionable, fancy
quit(e) v. pay, repay, requite
quod p. said
recche v. care
rede v. read, interpret, advise
reed n. advice
rehete v. show good will towards,
renne v. run
rent(e) n. income
ribaudes n. pl. rascals, foul-mouthed
right adv. quite, very, completely,
roun(e) v. whisper, speak
sad adj. steadfast, serious, sober,
sauf adj. safe
saugh, say, seigh p. saw
schend(e) see shende
scho pron. she
segge n. person
sekyr see siker
sekerly see sikerliche
sely adj. blessed, worthy, simple,
semely adj. beautiful, suitable,
semely, semyly adv. fittingly,
seth(e) see sitth(e)
sethen, sithen adv. then,
seye, seyn v. say
sheene, shene adj. bright, shiny,
shende v. harm, destroy, corrupt
shrew(e) n. rascal, scold
siker, sekyr adj. sure, reliable
sikerliche, sekerly adv. surely,
sitth(e), sithen adj., adv., conj.
since, then, after, because
skil(e) n. reason, knowledge
smal adj. slender
somdel adv. partly, somewhat
soth, sooth adj. true
soth, sothfastnesse n. truth
sothly adv. truly
spede(e) v. succeed, prosper
stei(e), steygh, sty(e) v. rise, ascend
sterve v. die, starve
stinte v. stop
streyt adj. strict
streytly adv. strictly, exactly
sweven(e) n. dream
swich, swilc adj. such, the same
swink(e) n., v. physical labor, work
swithe, swithely adv. very, very
much, quickly
swive v. have sex with
sy p. saw
syn conj. since
than(ne) adv. then
that pron. what
thee, theen v. thrive
(so moot I thee, as I may
ther as conj. in which, where
thilke adj. this, that same
this, thise these
tho adv. when, then
tho pron., adj. those
thoughte v. seemed (me
thoughte, it thoughte me, it
seemed to me)
thries adv. thrice
thriftili adv. properly, suitably
til(l) prep. to
to prep. until
togidre adv. together
touchyng(e) prep. concerning
travail(le) n., v. work
triste n., adj. trust
trowe v. trust, think, believe
trowing ger. belief, opinion
twey num. two
uche adj. each
unbuxomnes(se) n. disobedience
unethe, unneth(e) adv. with
difficulty, rarely, scarcely,
verreili, verreilich(e), verrily adv.
verrey, verray, verry adj. true
vilein n. unfree tenant, commoner
vileynye adv. rudeness, discourtesy
vitaille n. victuals, food
weit(e) see wit(e)
wend(e) v. go
wenden ppl. believed
wen(e), weene v. believe, anticipate,
suppose, think, imagine
wern(e) v. deny, refuse
werrey see verrey
werrily see verreili
whan, whanne adv., conj. when
whylom adv. once, once upon a
time, formerly
wif n. woman, wife
wight n. person, creature
wisse v. instruct, advise, guide, direct
wiste p. knew
wit n. consciousness, reason,
wisdom, intelligence
wit prep. with
wit(e), weit(e) v. know, find out,
withal, withalle adv. also, indeed
wol v. will
wolde v. would, wished, would
won(e) v., p. live, reside, dwell;
accustomed, habituated
wonede n. dwelling
wood, wod(e) adj. insane
woot, wot v. know, knows
worthe v. be, become
wost(e) p. knew, learned
wrooth, wroth adj. angry,
wust ppl. known
yaf p. gave
ye interj. yea, indeed
ye see eye
yede p. went
yen see eyen
yerne adv. enthusiastically,
yeve(n), yive v. give
yif conj. if
yis adv. yes, yes indeed

20 thoughts on “Glossary

  1. : My Favorite Passage in All of Literature – “There are books that are so alive that you’re always afr…

  2. 0lexie of course you can ask! I don’t have any problem telling! I’m studying English literature, and living abroad for a year 😀

  3. Work on writing page 2 use 4 response 2 literature! During 90 min read block must respond 2 a book 4 writing. #d5chat

  4. Be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them. – William Shakespeare

  5. Check This Out Contemporary Literary Criticism: Excerpts from Criticism of the Works of Today’s Novelists, Poets,…

  6. 1 Come on–that part about being blonde and stupid? That is literary criticism at it’s finest.

  7. 31st1980 (3/3) My literary criticism prof inflicted this idea on me, btw. “Zombie” was not my invention. XD

  8. Have concluded that my literary tastes make me look deranged. Also, the count of Monte cristo is massive, mental and physical workout.

  9. 1 Just read an article on slow education – struck a big chord. Am a literary agent – have you considered writing a book? Diana

  10. “Philology” then transferred to Anglo “literary scholarship” including “textual criticism” et al.

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